Jazz Improvisation_ Tonal and R - John Mehegan.pdf

Jazz Improvisation_ Tonal and R - John Mehegan.pdf

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REVISED AND ENLARGED EDmON

.lazz . t·10n Tmprov1sa

1

Tonal and Rhythmic Principles By John Mehegan

Preface by Leonard Bernstein

TONAL AND RHYTHMIC PRINCIPLES Jazz Improvisation I REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION

John Mehegan

Watson-Guptill Publications/New York

Q Amsco Publications New York/London/Sydney

To Linda Tara and Gretchen Lucille and Ron

Copyright© 1984, 1959 by Watson-Guptill Publications Revised edition published 1984 in New York by Watson-Guptill Publications, a division of Billboard Publications, Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 Exclusive distributors to the Music Sales Corporation 257 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10010 Music Sales Limited 819 Frith Stree1 London W1V 5TZ, England Music Sales P1y. Limited 120 Rothschild Street Rosebery Sydney, NSW 2018, Australia Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 84-50368 ISBN 0-8230-2559-4 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the publisher. Manufactured in U.S.A. 7

8

9

10

11199 98 97

96

95 94

CONTENTS Preface by Leonard Bernstein Introduction

5 7

SECTION I 1. Scale-tone Seventh Chords 2. Intervals 3. Chord Qualities 4. Altered Scale-tone Seventh Chords 5. Chromatic and Altered-chromatic Scale-tone Seventh Chords 6. The Sixty Chords

9 14 17 18 19 20

SECTION II 7. Key of C-"Fools Rush In" 8. Key of G-"Nice Work if You Can Get It" 9. Key of F-'Tm Glad There Is You" 10. Key of D-"Misty" 11. Key of Bb-"Ill Wind" 12. Key of A-"Moonglow" 13. Key of Eb-"The Man I Love" 14. Key of E-"These Foolish Things" 15. Key of Ab-"Spring Is Here 16. Key of B-"Just Friends" 17. Key of Db-"Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered" 18. Key of Fl:!-"Come Rain or Come Shine" 19. Key of Gb-"I Didn't Know What Time It Was" 20. Twelve Key Transposition-"! Only Have Eyes for You"

22 25 26 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33

SECTION ill Inversions Inversions-"No Moon At All" Inversions-"Liza" Inversions-"Waltz For Debbie" 25. Inversions-"Giant Steps" 21. 22. 23. 24.

34 40 41 41 43

SECTION IV 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Modulation-"Body and Soul" Modulation-"How High the Moon" Modulation-"Laura" Modulation-'Tll Remember April" Modulation-"All the Things You Are"

44 44 45 45 46

31. Modulation-"Autumn in New Yor 32. Transposition-Modulation-"In Yo1 Own Sweet Way"

SECTION V 33. Arpeggios 34. Arpeggios in Rhythm 35. Eighth-note Arpeggios-"! Could Write a Book," in Db 36. Rhythmic Combinations-"Green Dolphin Street" 37. Sixteenth-note Arpeggios-"At Lm Last Love," in C 38. Rhythmic Combinations"Sophisticated Lady," in Ab 39. Rhythmic Composite (ballad)-"! Got It Bad," in G 40. Rhythmic Composite (up-tempo)"You Took Advantage of Me," in

SECTION VI 41. Modes-"Speak Low," in F

42. The Major Scale-"Moonlight in Vermont," in Eb 43. The Dominant Scale-"lt Could Happen to You," in Ab 44. The Minor Scale-"Little Girl Blue," in F 45. The Half-diminished Scale-"D01 Blame Me," in C 46. The Diminished Scale-"Birth of the Blues," in C 47. The Sixty Scales 48. Scale-arpeggio Alteration-"Like Someone in Love," in C 49. Eighth note Scales-Scale Fragments-"Blue Moon," in E 50. Eighth-note Triplet Scale Fragments-"Cabin in the SJ...,,," in G 51. Sixteenth-note Scale Fragments"Dancing on the Ceiling," in F 52. Rhythmic Combinations-"Roum Midnight," in Eb minor 53. Rhythmic Composite (ballad)"Have You Met Miss Jones?" in 54. Rhythmic Composite (up-tempo} "Lullaby of Birdland," in B

SECTION VII 55. The Chromatic Tones-"! Cover the 56.

57. 58. 59.

Waterfront," in G The Sensitive Tones-"Night and Day," in Eb Basic Syncopation-"Easy To Love," in Ab Accent-"Makin' Whoopee," in A Coleman Hawkins' "Sweet Lorraine" in G

123 128

132 136 140

SECTION VIII 60. The Blues (harmonic) 146 61. The Blues (melodic)-"Willow Weep for Me," in G 147

SECTION IX 62. Patterns-Circle of Fifths-"Pick Yourself Up," in F 63. Pattems-Diatonic-"Tea for Two," in Ab 64. Patterns-Chromatic-"Jeepers Creepers," in Bb

152 154

155

SECTION X 65. Minor Scale-tone Chords"Yesterdays," in D minor 66. Minor Scale-tone Arpeggios-"My Funny Valentine," in C minor 67. Minor Scale-tone Scales-"Just One of Those Things," in D minor

156 161

162

SECTION XI 68. Open Position-Axis of the Seventh"When Your Lover Has Cone," in G 163

69. Open Position-Axis of the Third'Tve Got You Under My Skin,"in Eb 70. Open Position-Mixed Axis-"Lover Man," in F 71. Basic Professional Piano (melodic)"Tenderly," in D 72. Basic Professional Piano (improvised)-"Gone with the Wind," in Eb

167 171

175 182

SECTION XII 73. Standard Procedure 74. Ear Training 75. Memorization 76. Sheet Music Conversion 77. Touch-Technique Recordings

193 194 195 195 198 199

SECTION XIII For Further Study "Dolphin Dance" "Invitation" and "West Coast Blues" "The Summer Knows," "Time After Time," and "For All We Know" "The Preacher" and "Desifinado" "Our Love is Here to Stay" and "Here's that Rainy Day" "The Girl from lpanema" and "One Note Samba" "Just in Time," "Tune-Up," and "The Shadow of Your Smile" "Nica's Dream" and "Four" "Quiet Nights and Quiet Stars" and "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life" "Carolina Shout"

203 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210

211 212

PREFACE There has long been a need for a sharp, clear, wise textbook which would once and for all codify and delineate that elusive procedure known as jazz improvisation. Of course, no improvisation can ever be explained down to its roots; therein lies the mystery and joy of spontaneous creation. And any improvisation will vary greatly in proportion to talent, mood, colleagues and endless personal factors. Still, there is a basis to improvisation of any kind: a coupling of traditions and techniques. And that basis can be explained, difficult though it may be. I suppose it is this difficulty that has prevented such a book from having been written heretofore; but at last there is a Johnny Mehegan who has the ability to do it. He has that peculiar combination of abilities which is absolutely necessary for such an endeavor: academic and scholarly knowledge (and insight and interest), plus an immense practical knowledge (and insight and interest) born of long years of simply doing it himself and teaching others to do it. I am proud to be able to write this preface to what I am sure will be a highly important and valuable publication.

Leonard Bernstein

INTRODUCTION This book is an attempt to describe the process that occurs when a jazz musician improvises. This process is not a mysterious and esoteric rite arbitrarily enacted without discipline or precise knowledge. Rather, it is a concise application of logical and

I

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Ilc,6 / bllx / III bIIIx / II blli /

bllix / Ilij, / bllx / 1+• #I / 1+ bVIIx / v1 + • bv+ / vnx bv11x ; {{ bJ vi.ix / IIh bv11x / VI+• bv+ /

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VIIx IIIx / Ill bllli / II bllx / I / Im / IlliJ, / blllx / II,f> / bllx /

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THE MAN I LOVE-by George and Ira Gershwin © 1924 New World Music Corp. {renewed). All rights reserved. Used by permission.

29

LESSON

14.

KeyofE The following is a bass line for "These Foolish Things." Transfer the melody to manuscript paper, transpasing from Eb to E major.

I+ • VI / II bllx / I + • VI / II V / Vm bV / IV #lo / Ilx / II pllx / I+• VI / II bllx / I+• VI / II V / Vm bV / IV #lo / II bllx / 1+• VIIx / rn+•bII / bW VIIx / III JUR / bll ImP / VIIm III / VI Ilx / Ill blllx / II blh: / I+. VI / II bllx / I +. VI / II V /

Vm

bV

/

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#lo /

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I+ 4

//

THESE FOOLISH THill:GS-by Strachey, Link, and Marvell © 1935 by Boosev & Co. Ud., London, Enghnd. © renewed. All rights for the United States ancl Canada assigned to Bourne Co. Used by permission. ·

LESSON

15. Key

of Ab

The following is a bass line for "Spring Is Here." Transfer the melody to manuscript paper.

bVIx / IVaR / bV bIIlx /

II bllx / I H / III VI / II VIIi:R / VIIxi: 5 bVIIx / VI::" 7 VJll 7

/

VI 1v::1:H / blII bVIx / II V / bVIx / IVi:"R / bV IVx / III VI / Vm Ix / !Vm bVIIx / III¢ blIIx I II bIIx / I II / III VI / bllI bVlx /

II IVcf, I III VI / II bIIx / 1+ 6

/

!+ 15 ii

SPRI'\G !S HERE-by Lorenz Hart and Richard Rodgers ~ 1938, renewed 1966 Robbins Music Corp. All right, administered by CBS Songs, a Division of CBS Inc. All rights reserved. l'sed by pem1ission.

30

The author would like to acknowledge the harmonic: innovations of Bill Evans in the above chart.

LESSON

16.

Key of B The follo.ving is a bass line for "Just F1iends." Transfer the melody to manuscript paper, transposing from G to B major. pid.·IIP

bV II JV I JV+ 6 I IVm / bVIIx / Ill / VI I bill I bVIx / II IV I I I VI I llx / Ilx I II V I Vm bV I IV I IV• 6 I IVm / bVIIx / III / VI I blll I bVlx / II / V I VII IIIx / VJl" VI / Ilx I II bllx I J• 6

/

I •6

//

JUST FRIENDS-Words by S.1m M. Lewis, Music by John Klenner O 1931 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. © renewed 1959. All rights administered by Robbins J.lusic Corp., a catalogue of CBS Songs, a Division of CBS Inc. Intemational copyright set·uwd. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

LESSON

17,

Key of Db The following is a bass line for "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered." Transfer the melody to manuscript paper, transposing from C to Db, pid.,n J->.,nJJJJ 74

Fig. I is a bass line for "You Took Advantage of Me," in Eb-

Fig. 1.

I tlo / II V / Ill bIIIo / II V / Vm Ix / IV bVIlx / Hix Vix Ilx V / I• 6 #I / I #Io I II V / III bIIlo / II V / Vm Ix I IV bVIIx / Illx Vlx Ilx V / f+ 6 bVIIx /

Vi+ 6 bVq,

Vilx / Illx Vix / IIx V /

Vi+ 6 bVq, Vilx / IIIx Vix / Ilx V / III blllx II bllx /

I bVIIx /

l ~Ho I II V / Ill bllio / II V / Vm Ix / IV bVIIx / Illx Vix IIx V /

YOU TOOK ADVANTAGE OF ME-Lyrics by Lorenz Hart, Music by Richard Rodgers C 1928 (renewed) Warner Bros. Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

If we apply the composite to the arpeggios of Fig. I. we derive the following drill.

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As in Lesson 39, the student should thoroughly analyze the use of rest values and arpeggios in Fig. 2. Simply to play over these specimens is of little value. When playing these examples, try to keep a steady quarternote foot beat. Above all. do not use any pedal.

DRILL: Transfer the melody to manuscript paper using three staves: one for melody; one for the student's improvisation; and one for the bass line. Using Fig. 2 as a model, the student should write out, if necessary, an improvisation on the bass line in Fig. L

77

SECTION VI LESSON

41.

Modes If we play the scale-tone chords in C and play the C major scale from root to root of each chord (Fig. 1), we are playing the various modes of the scale of C. A mode is a displaced scale played from root to root of

th8 chord.

Fig. 1. CHORD

I

II III IV V

VI VII

ScALE C C C C C C C

DISPLACEMENT C-C D-D

MODE

loNIAN DoRJAN

E-E F - F

PJmYGIAN

G-G

MIXOLYDlAN

A-A

AEOLIAN LilCRIAN

B-B

LYDIAN

Fig. 2 illustrates the modes of the scale of G: CHORD

Sc.ALE

I II III

G G G G G G G

IV V

VI VII

DISPLACEMENT

G-G A-A B-B

C-C D-D E-E

F# - F#

MOOE IONlAN

DoRIAN flmYGIAN LYDIAN MlxOLYDIAN

AroLIAN LocruAN

The following table illustrates the modes existing in any key: CHORD

I II III

IV V

78

VI VII

DISPLACEMENT

MODE

1 • 1

loNIAN

2 • 2 S • 3 4 • 4

PHRYGIAN

5 • 5 6 - 6 1 • 1

AEOLIAN

DORI.AN LYDIAN MJXOLYDIAN

LOCBIAN

These modes built on the twelve major scales represent one of the most impartant elements of jazz improvisation. They are highly effective in building a horizontal "blowing" line so long as the harmonic line moves in the normal scale-tone chords without alteration or chromatic adjust• menl Since the previous lessons have made it evident that even the simplest tune utilizes altered and chromatic chords, this simple modal system must be expanded to meet the requirements of a sixty chord system. The next six lessons will deal with this problem. In preparation for these chapters, the student is strongly advised to play the scale-tone chords in twelve keys with accompanying modes in the right hand as in Figs. 3 and 4. Fig. S. Key of C.

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79

Fig. 5 is a bass line for "Speak IAw," in F. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper noting key changes. On the lettered scale-tone chords, abandon the melody and play the required mode of the prevailing key scale. Letters over each chord indicate the mode to be played with

each chord. The following chart illustrates the symbol key for each mode: Mixolydian - M Aeolian -A Locrian - LO

Ionian - IO Dorian - D Phrygian - P

Lydian-LY Fig. 5. pkk-up

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DISPLACEMDi"T

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C E

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D# · D#

In jazz hannony, the temporary half-diminished chord seldom, if ever, reaches its natural resolution, but at the moment it is played it implies the VII of a new key. Fig. I illustrates the twelve half-diminished chords with accompanying Locrian modes, to be played ascending and descending.

90

RULE: The half-diminished chord fs a VII or the temporary vn of a new key and takB8 the ffllk of that key from root Co root. Fig. L

c,s (VllofDb)

P'f,s (VIIofG)

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Dp (VllofEb)

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91

Fig. 2 is a bass line for MD.:r: : :__.=.~ c = · -:=-::~ ::.= ==.:..:,:- r manuscript paper. Abandon the r:::t".:~,: -:..:c "-:-- - ~ ______ ished scales for each haU-diminis:,;-:: :.:.~-

=

Fig. 2. ..Don't Blame Me."

bllx bW, IV+ / III blllx II blli I VI / II,t> bllx / III bllli vn IIh: / VII bv11x / vr=' r:: II blh / I IVm / III bllli I IVm / Ill bllh / ll

bllh I

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D01':T BLAME ME-by Dorothy Fie-'.,:i, .Cl 1932. renewed 1960 Robbins ~k Division of CBS, Inc. All rights n:-;.,;-:-, ,-::. Used by pem1ission. 0 ,.

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LESSON 46.

=

The diminished chord has no '"r.z.=:=: :::=::::: ::. E T =z:e learned to employ the diminished 6:r: ,;E" :::: z ::i:: point does it infer any tonality. An arbitrary scale is employed h ::.cc --- --~ ==. .--:.:: · --:::s all the tones of the chord in additio:: .,._ , =---= - - - ~: tones. Fig. 1 illustrates the C dimir;:,:e: =-.-::. ·~ ::. ~ --- >" .=

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Since this scale bas no relation t: :::· ing the intervals as follows:

Minor se::::..:. - . Major s~:·=-:. - _ Thus, in Fig. I, the semitone c::c_::.= :..

92

C 0

D 2

F 2

I



I

This is an artificial scale since the same letter, in any form (Ao - A), cannot appear twice in an authentic scale. Fig. 2 illu~tn1tes the tweke diminished chords with accompanying sc..i.les, to be played a~cending and descending. The fingerings are a suggestion for the student

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Fig. 3 is a bass line for ..Birth of the Blues.• Transfer the melody to manuscript paper. Abandon the melody and p1ay diminished scales on all diminished chords. Fig. 3. pick-up

#lo/ II #Ilo I III Uh.U I IV #JVo IV IV III bIII I II bllx I I ·tt VI / II blh. / I #lo / ll #{Io I III IIIx•• / bllx II I

IV #!Vo / V IV III bIII / II blh / I+ • #I / I+ • IVx / llh VII / IIIx VII / Illx IVx / IIh / III Vix / III Vix /

VI lb: I II bllx I I #lo I II #Ilo / III llh 1 ' VIV III blII I II blh. / 1+• / 1+• //

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THE BIRTH OF THE BLUES-Lyrics by B.G. DeSylva and Lew Brown, Music by Ray Henderson Q 1926 (renewed) Warner Bros. Inc. All tights reseived. Used by pennission. Reproduced by permission (in the U.K.) of Redwood Musk Ltd./Chappell Musk.

LESSON 47.

The Sixty Scales

94

We have now completed the scales for the sixty chords. The importance of these scales cannot be overstated in building the material for jazz improvisation. Fig. 1 illustrates a highly recommended drill based on the five qualities of each tone. These scales or modes should be practiced ascending and descending until they are completely automatic. The student is also advised to return to the previous chapters and explore these scales in the various tunes abandoning the melody. The student is advised to follow the general fingering rules for the major scales when playing the M, x, m and modes. Suggested fingerings have been added to the diminished scales since they represent an unfamiliar series of whole and half steps.

Fig. 1.

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renewed. International mpyright secured. All rights reserved. Used by pem1ission.

Fig. 3 is a drill applying the scales of the bass line in Fig. 2 to the com• posite in Fig. I. In each case the required mode has been followed, although the starting point of each phrase has not necessarily been the root of the chord. Each note of the mode becomes a possible starting or ending point.

Using Fig. 3 as a model, play or write out an improvisation using the composite and the scales of the bass line in Fig. 2.

Fig. S.

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LESSON

54. Rhythmic Composite (up-tempo)

As in the arpeggio study, the composite is simplified in up-tempo tunes to insure a stronger feeling of swing. Fig. 1 is a possible compDsite for an up-tempo tune.

Fig. 1.

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n , i> J J J J Fig. 2 is a bass line for "Lullaby of Birdland," in the key of B. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper using three staves. Fig. 2. VI+• bV / VIIx IIIx / VI" VI/ II IVo / III VI / II V /

I IV / VII IIIx / vr+• bW• / VIIx lllx / VI.' VI / II IVo / III VI / II V / I bllx / 1+• / IU,t, blllx / II / II

;.

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Foot beat

In Fig. 2, the accented tones fall on 2, 4, 6 and 8 which are struck while the foot is in the air. The student will find Fig. I easy to play. Fig. 2 will

be troublesome in the beginning since the hand and the foot are in opposition to each other.

Fig. 2.

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The use of accent in an eighth-note series, as in Fig. 2, is of the utmost importance in creating rhythmic interest in a jazz line and should be carefully studied by the pupil. Fig. 3 is a bass line for "Makin' Whoopee," in the key of A.• Fig. 4 illustrates a drill on Fig. 3 employing the use of accent. Wedges over the tones indicate the accent points of the line.

Transfer the melody to manuscript paper using three staves. Write or play a line on Fig. 3 using Fig. 4 as a model

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#}Io VI •• / Vm Ix / IV+ • / IVm bVIlx / I Il #IIO III / Vm h / 1v+• / IVm bVIh / III VI / blll

bVix

Ill blllx II bIIx / I blll bVIx / I + •

/ I+• Il /

#lo /

II V / Vm Ix / IVm bVIh / III VI /

/ I + • //

MAKIN' WHOOPEE-Lyrics by Cus Kahn, Music by Walter Donaldson U.S. C 1940 (renewed) Warner Bros. Music Con,. All ri2hts reserved. U.K. C) 1928 Bregman, V()CCO, and Conn Inc. Sul,..published by Keith Prowse Music Publishing Co. Ltd Used by pennission.

Fig. 4. " ~

.II!

.i. ~

~

'

.. =

> - - - ~· .... >

~

-~

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.__

.

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r

>

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>

>

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-

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~T

-

-

"'

-

>

.,

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-.· >

---.:rhe sheet music appears In G, so melody must be transpo$ed to A.

137

-

..

~

~

~ ~

~

I!

V

I
minor large

PosmoN

I ll Ill IV

SYMBOL

mL

hall-diminished major augmented

M+

minor

m

dominant half-diminished

X

VI

VII

diminished

0

V

'. B minor scale-tone chords.

,..

-1-

..,

C.

l' . . .

~

.,

.

Ii -

-

,.

~-. AJ, minor scale--tone chords.

F#

minor ~cale-tone chords.

159

q;

minor scale-tone chords.

The minor scale-tone chords can be inverted in the same manner as the major chords. Fig. 8 illustrates the inversions of the scale-tone chords in D minor.

.

Fig. 8.

,. Cl

.,,

--~'

!

NOTE:



-

~.

:1~-------n::

The diminished chord is always in root position.

Fig. 9 is a bass line for "Yesterdays," in D minor. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper noting key change to Bb major and the return to D minor. Since "Yesterdays" is written in half-time, the time values of each melodic tone must be doubled in order to create the necessary rhythmic framework for a jazz improvisation. Thus:

160

J• becomes J• J becomes J

J becomes

0

J becomes J

Fig. 9.

( d) I + • VI / II bllx / I + • VI / II blh / I + • I I / Im • / (d) VI/ IIx / (Bb) v11x•· / illx / VIx / IIx / II bllx / I VI/ ( d) II / bllx / I + • VI / II bllx / I + • VI / II bllx / (d) 1+• I,/ Im, /VI/ llx / {Bb) VIIx 1 • / IIIx /Vix/ Ilx / (Bb) n bllx 11 vr 1 (d) II I bIIx / 1+• 11+• 11 YESTERDAYS-hv Otto Harhach and _krome Kem C, HJ33 T.B. 1-ianm Co. © renewed % The Welk Music Group. International copyri¢1t secured. All rights 1"t'sef\ ed. 0

Used by pem,ission.

DRILL: Practice the minor scale-tone chords in twelve keys using both

hands.

LESSON 66,

Minor Scale-tone Arpeggios The minor scale-tone chords involve two new qualities: I which is mL and III which is M+. The minor large chord has appeared before as a suspended minor. The major augmented has appeared as a suspended major. Arpeggios for these chords follow the tones as they appear in the chords. Fig. I is a bass line for "My Funny Valentine," in C minor. This is not an authentic minor tune since its final resolution occurs in major. This is characteristic of many runes in the jazz repertoire. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper and play the appropriate arpeggios of the chord changes. Note the key change.

Fig. 1.



( c) I+• / I• / Im a / VI / IV• Vm / IV IV• / II / blli / (c) 1+ 1 / 11 / Ima/ VI / (Eb) IV / III bIIlx / II / bllx / (Eb) I / II / III / IV IV I m bVIh / VI bVlx Vm bV / (Eb) IV II/ (c) II bilx / 1+•

• 11'• V / /Ia/ Ima/ VI/ IV•/

bV /

IV III/ II blh / 1+• / 1+• //

(c) Im Vllx / (Eb) Vm

MY FUNNY VALENTlNE-bv Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart Cl 1937 by Chappell & eo·., Inc. © renewed International eopyright secured. All rights reserved. Used by pennission.

161

LESSON 67.

Minor Scale•tone Scales The minor scale-tone scales follow the rules described £or the major chords. Scales for the mL and M+ chords appear in Lesson 48. The following is a bass line for "Just One of Those Things," in the key of D minor. This also is not an authentic minor tune. Many "minor" tunes such as this and "'My Funny Valentine" start on the VI of the final major key which is often referred to as the relative minor. It is more practical to thfDlc of it as VL Transfer the melody to manuscript paper noting key changes. Abandon the melody and play appropriate scales with the chord changes. Improvise on the bass lines in Lessons 65, 66 and ffl.

{d)bllx II 1+• / VI / II / V / (F) Vm / Ix / bW / IVo / (F) III / blllx / II / blix / 1+• / #lo / II II a / (d) II bIIx / (d) 1+• /VI/ II/ V / (F) Vm / h: / bW / IVo /III/ bIIIx I (F) II / bllx / 1+• / #{o / {Eb) II / V / I /#lo/ II / V / (Eb) 1+• / Im IVx / (C) II / blh: / 1+• / VI / bV4i / !Vo/ (C) llI / blllo / (d) IV IV a / II bllx / 1+• / VI / II / V / (F) Vm /Ix/ IV/ bVIIx /III/ blllx /II/ bllx / 1+• / 1+• / (F) 1+• / 1+• // JUST ONE OF THOSE THINGS-Words and music by Cole Porter Cl 1935 (renewed) Warner Bros. Inc. All rights resetved. Used by pennission.

162

SECTION XI LESSON

68.

Open Position-Axis of the Seventh The problems of style are beyond the scope of this book. However, some primary studies in tonal organization are neo6$sary as a preparation for future work in keyboard conception. These primary studies are derived from the major scale-tone chords and involve a simple rearrangement of the tones. Fig. 1 illustrates the normal scale-tone chords in the key of C in what is called closed position.

I

I

Fig. 1.

i

1

l

'

t 1 nI mI IVI I I t I V

I

VI

Vll

I

Fig. 2 illustrates the same chords in open position: root and filth in the left hand, third and seventh in the right hand. This position of the tones is called the am of the seventh ( seventh is top voice}.

,. Fig. 2. CJ

z T

.:::.. ♦

I

...

~

T

D

.&.

T

...

-=-

...



m

IV

T

....



VI

vn

. V

I

163

Fig. 3 illustrates the scale-tone chords of G in open position of the seventh.

",J,

...

Fig. 8. t}

.. -

.

~

I

-:



.. ...

-:

~

II

m

IV

VI

V

....

vn

" ti

.

-~



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l

I j

!

IV

V

-



....

VI

vn

I

~

axis of the

Fig. 6.

Fig. 5.

" ---.

~ ,,.

--.,

---

-

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I

CM

Cx:

Cm

Cp

""'"' I

Co

GM GJt

Gm Ci,!

Fig. 6 illustrates the five qualities on G, open position seventh.

164

axis



Fig. 5 illustrates the five qualities on C, open position seventh.

-«]

j

1

Fig. 4 illustrates the scale-tone chords of F in open position of the seventh.

Fig. 4.

axis

Go

axis of the

I I l

i

Inversions, being rearranged scale-tone chords, have no third, fifth and seventh as such. However, they are treated in the same manner as normal or altered scale-tone chords. The first and third notes of the inversion are played with the left hand and the second and fourth notes of the inversion are played with the right hand. The student should remember that diminished chords cannot be inverted. Fig. 7 illustrates the inversions on the Jive qualities, derived from the axis of the seventh, in the

key of

Eb.

Fig. 7. ,. I

«>

I

:;:

-

El,M

T I



T

I I

EbM!

I

El,J4

EliM2

-

Ebx

Y'"'

I

I I

Ehi

Ebx:i

El,xj

Ebo ol,o

Ao

Co

DRILL: Play the scale-tone seventh chords. open position, axis of the seventh in twelve keys. All five qualities on twelve tones with their inversions.

Fig. 8 is a bass line for "When Your Lover Has Gone," in the key of G. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper. In ad lib style, play the chords in open position integrating the melody in octaves. {See Fig. 9. Copyright laws prohibit exact reproduction of the melody.)

165

Fig. 8.

I / I / IVx / IVx / Ilx b •

/

Ilx b •

/

bVIIx: / bVIIx / I / I VI /

IIx / ~Ho / II / IVtf> / III blllx / II bllx / I / I / IVx / IVx / IIx b • / IIx b • / bVllx / bVllx / I / I IVm / III / blllx / II /

bIIM / I / 1+• //

WHEN YOUR LOVER HAS CO)';E-Words and Music bv EA. Swan U.S. 0 Hl64 Wamer Bros. Inc. All rights reserved. · U.K. () 1931 Remick ~-lusic Corp. Sub-published by Francis Day and Hunter Ltd. Used by permission.

Fig. 9. ,., Jl,

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,

J

.J_

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--

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ti

.

.

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------

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IVx

.-

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::

I C0]'11,

-

I

I

-

-

- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -e-e-_

etc.

IVx

I

Fig. 10 is a bass line for "When Your Lover Has Gone." Play Fig. 10 integrating melody as in Fig. 9.

t

I

Fig. 10.

--AJl.

CJ

-u:

-z-E'"

-- ---

;r.e-

--..

"~

.~

~

.

r-=--e:,

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bvnx 166

1

--

~ IVx IVx:

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l l I

r

.e,

_

..... bvnx.

-u-

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DIIIx

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n

bnx

-e-

,e-

....

i DRILL: Play the scale-tone chords in open position, axis of the third, in twelve keys; all flve qualities and their inversions on twelve tones. NOTE:

Both these chords and those illustrated in Lesson 68 arc among the basic devices used by jazz pianists when "comping" (accompanying another instrument within a group),

LESSON

70. Open Position-1'fixed Axis

By combining the two axis positions, it is possible to achieve a smoother voice-leading than is possible when only a single axis is used. Fig. l illustrates the circle of fifths described in Lesson 62.

DII

\ I

A

VI

EIII

/

If we play a descending chromatic scale beginning on the major third with the circle described above, we derive Fig. 2 ( the jazz circle, like the circle in all tonal music. moves counterclockwise).

171

Fig. 2. A

3

I

'J

3

,,

3

,,

,,

3

.,

3

.,

-

,. L

3

I

H we play the circle a second time with a descending chromatic scale beginning on the minor seventh, we derive the following (Fig. 3): Fig. 3. A

3

'l

'1

'1

3

3

'1

r

&I

. ··•

...

L-

I

'1

.,..

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3

~

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3

,..

'1

I

If we combine Figs. 2 and 3, we derive the following (Fig. 4):

Fig. 4. Ii

.

I

lf•

&I

...

172

3

I...

I_

. ,..

.....

...

I

The major third and the minor seventh have been chosen because the dominant circle formed by these intervals is the primary circle in jazz harmony. Fig. 4 above illustrates a basic principle of all tonal harmony which is evident in any Bach Invention; In a circle of fifths, the third becomes the seventh and the seventh becomes the third. Fig. 5 is a bass line for "Lover Man," in the key of F. Transfer the melody to manuscript paper noting key changes. As in Lessons 68 and 69, play the chords in ad lib style in open pasition integrating the melody in octaves. Numbers over the Roman numerals indicate axis to be played on each chord to insure smooth voice•leading.

"

Fig. 5. (F) VI IIx / VI Ilx / II V / II V / Ix

,, ,

I

,

IVx / bVIx Ilx bllx /

( F) I IV VIIm IIIx / VI IIx / VI Ilx / II V / II V / Ix / IVx / , r

r

I

(F) bVlx IIx bllx / I / (G) IIH• If#'/ II bllx /III/ III II/

(F) nu• IP'/ II bIIx / I IV/ VII IIIx: / VI IIx / VI llx /

,, ,

,

(F) II V / II V / Ix / IVx / bVIx Ilx bllx / I // Fig. 5.

7

7

7

3

7

'7

3

3

7

7

3

I\

C

~

"

-0-

..

-

-0-

-,

'7

-

~

-

~

I

-

3

7

F

V

~

-

-e-

I

- - -:

r

~

-L,_

r

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I

3

·--

VA

3

·-

q-r

,,...

I

I

--., -

.7 V

-

-e-

"' 7 ~

" "

V

LOVER MAN (Oh Where Can You Be?)-by Jimmy Davis, Roger "RamN Ramirez. and Jimmy Shemmn © 1941, HJ42 by MCA Music, A Division of MCA Inc., New York, N.Y. © renewed. All rights reserved. Used by pennission.

173

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174

7

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7

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..::

LESSON 71.

l 1 l

1

Basic Professional Piano (melodic) We now have in our grasp sufficient material to play what might be called basic professional piano. In other words, most professional players seem able to reproduce a simple but effective sound which fulfills minimal requirements. This sound does not demand a florid technique and, above all, does not sound like sheet music. It is based on one primary factor that is used in whole or in part by every professional pianist playing today. This basic idea is open pasition - axis of the third and axis of the seventh. However, the use of the octave melody in Lessons 68, 69 and 70 is awkward in that the phrasing of the melodic line must be constantly interrupted in order that the chords be played at their appointed positions, This device was used only to introduce the mechanics of this type of keyboard orchestration. The professional uses the axis technique but, instead of playing the melody in octaves, he simply adds the melody to the right hand in a single voice above the third or the seventh ( see Fig. I ) .

Fig. 1.

I

VI

!Vo

m

!>mx

n

blli:

The simple rule for this procedure is as follows: Play the root and fifth in the left hand. Play the melody in the right hand, adding the nearest third and seventh immediately below the melody.

175

For example. in Fig. 2, the melody note is D, the chord is I in the key of C. The root ( C) and fifth (G) are played in the le£t hand; the melody ( D) is played in the right hand; the two nearest axis points below the melody are the seventh {B) and the third (E}.

Fig. 2.

Fig. S.

CM

ex

Cm

c,s

Co

Fig. 3 illustrates the D melody note with the Cx, Cm. Cef, and Co chords. In each case, the axis formed by the D with the C chords is that of the seventh.

I

1 In Fig. 4. the melody note is G, the chord is I in the key of F. Here. the two nearest axis points below the melody are E (seventh) and A (third).

I 't I j

' Fx

F(;

Fo

j

Fig. 5 illustrates the G melody note with the Fx, Fm, F / IVm / n1x::1 5

~

/

blllx / Ilx I bllM / I / J+ 6

//

DESIFINADO-Words by Newton Mendonca, Music by Antonio Carlos Jobim Cl 1959 and 1962 Editora Musical Arapua,_ Sao Paulo, Brazil. TR0-Ho11is Music, Inc. New York, oontrols all publication rights for the USA and Canada. Cl 1962. Bendig Music Corp. assignea to TRO essex Music Ltd., 85 Gower Street, London, WCl for the territories of the British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations (excluding Canada) and the Republics of Ireland and South Africa. Used by permission.

Our Love Is Here to Stay The following is a bass line for "Our Love Is Here to Stay" in the key of F.

picl / VIIx I IVx I IIIx bV4> I VIIm I IIIx / 3

VI 117 VI/ Ilx /II/ V113 IVo /III¢/ Vix/ II II #II III/ IVm bVIIx / III III¢ I Vlx 113 bIIIx / Ilx / II y:: 3

/

J+ 6

/

J+ 6

//

THE SHADOW OF YOUR SMILE-by John Mandel and Paul Francis Webster Courtesy ofR.C. Burkett, Howard-Burkett Music Used by permission.

209

Nica's Dream The following is a bass line for "Nica's Dream" in bb minor. The key series is as follows: Bars 1- 6: bb minor Bars 7-12: Cb major Bars 13-22: bb minor Bars 23-28: GI, major Bars 29-32: bb minor Bars 33-46: Db major Bars 47-54: bb minor Bars 55-60: Cb major Bars 61-64: bb minor pkk-up

(bb) bllx II I I !+ 6 I bVIImL I bVIIm+ 6 (Gb)

ni:,

I II I bIIx I I+ 6 I IVx II (bb) II I bIIx I J+ 6

(bb) bVIImL I bVIlm + 6 (Gb) !+ 6

/

/

(Db) III II

IVx II (bb) II I bllx I 1• 6

i

bViIM /

/

I

J+ 6 /II I• 6 I

/

I+ 6 II (Db) II I II4> I

llx I II bllx / Io I I VI I II / Hep /

v1x= 5 / Ilx / II Il 2

(bb) bVIImL / bVIIm• 6 I I / P /

/

n= 111

I I J+ 6 II (Gb) II" 117 I IP 7 I II I bllx I

(Db) III Ii f bVIIM / v1x:i: 5

(Cb) I+6

I / 1' 6 II (Cb)

/

II (bb) llx / bllx / I / I+ 6 I

II (Cb) II 11117

6

IVx II (Bb) II / bllx / !+ 6

/

/

Il" 7

/

II / bIIx /

J+ 6 II

NICA'S DREAM-by Horace Silver Cl 1956 Ecaroh Music, Inc. or! 1975 Ecaroh Music, Inc. Used by pennission.

Four The following is a figured bass for "Four" in Eb major. bllx // I II I J:+IIo Ill / Im I IVx / II / Ill / IVm /

bVIlx / Ill I bIII !Nix I II II2

/

VIIm IIIx I IIl / bIII bVIx / II / b!Ix /

I II/ l+Ilo III I Im I IVx I II I III I IVm / bVIIx / III / blII bVlx / II II2

VIIm IIIx I Ill bIII / II bllx I I • 6

110

FOUR-by ~files Davis Courtes)' of Prestige Music Co., l11c. Used h)' pennission.

/

I +6

//

/

Quiet Nights and Quiet Stars TI1e following is a bass line for "Quiet Nights and Quiet Stars" in the key of C. 4

4

IV3 / % / bllx3

% / Vm / Ix'"-' / IV / IV I IVm I bVIIx / Illx:: 5

/

~

Vlx" 5

/

VI / Ilx / II II2

VII bVIIx / Ilx-3

/

Ix= 3 I IV / IV / IVm / bV1Ix" 5 bllx / I / I + 5

/

4

/

% / bllx3

III I VI / II / y:: 3

/

/

/

% / Vm /

lllq, / bIIlx / II /

//

QUIET NIGHTS OF QUIET STARS (CORCOYADO)-()riginal words and Music by Antonio Carlos Jobim, £ng)ish words by Gene Lees © 1962, 1964 l,y Antonio Carolos Johim, Brazil. Sole selling agent Duchess Music Corp. (MCA) New York, N.Y. for all English speaking countries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life The following is a bass line for "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life" in (a) minor. The chord chart is scored in C major, although the final cadences occur in the relative minor. Note key changes.

(C)

bVIIx II VP: 7 VI 2 in / VI2 bVq., / IV IV" 5

(C)

II 0 7 Il 117

(C)

bVIIx / yp:, VI 2 == 1

(A)

II bllx / I II / III VI / II bllx / I VI / 11 bllx / I IV //

/

II Il2

(Gb) II blix / I J+ 6

//

/

IV+ 6 IV2

/

VII / bVIlx / Vl 117 VI 2 " 7

/

Vl2 bV¢ / IV IV: 5

/

{F) II bIIx / I 12 VI Vl 2

(C)

Vl2 bVcp / IV IV 115

(C}

IIIx VI// (a) IV IV2

/

/

JV+ 6 IV2

/

IP ~7

/

II 112

IV+ 6 IV2

//

/

/

/

VII /

II II2

(C) Vl" 7 Vl/ 7

nu /

II II 2

II l,Ux /Im/ IVx / ll / bllx / J+ 6

//

/

/

VII /

/

J+ 6

//

WHAT ARE YOU DOING THE REST OF YOUR LIFE?-by Alan Bergman, Marilyn Bergman, and Michel Legrand © 1969 United Artists Music Co., Inc. All rights administered by CBS Songs, a Division of CBS, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

211

Carolina Shout

:::AROLINA SHOUT-by James P. Johnson Cl 1926 by MCA Music, a Division of MCA Inc., New York, N.Y. (;) renewed. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

212

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